BET

BET: Brunauer–Emmett–Teller method serves as the basis for an important analysis technique for the measurement of the specific surface area of materials. Nitrogen is the most commonly employed gaseous adsorbate used for surface probing by BET. Standard BET analysis is most often conducted at the boiling temperature of N2.

ICP MS

ICP-MS: ICP-MS is a type of mass spectrometry which is capable of detecting metals and several non-metals at low concentrations, it is achieved by ionizing the sample with inductively coupled plasma and using a mass spectrometer to separate and quantify the ions.

ICP OES 1

ICP-OES: ICP-OES is a technique used for the detection of chemical elements. It uses the inductively coupled plasma to produce excited atoms and ions that emit electromagnetic radiation at wavelengths characteristic of a particular element. The intensity of the emission is indicative of the concentration of the element within the sample.

TPD TPR Chemisorption

TGA-IR: TGA-IR combines thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) with the identification power of an FTIR spectrometer. TGA measures the change in sample weight as a function of temperature or time in a controlled atmosphere, which is usually accompanied by an evolution of gases caused by sample decomposition or volatilization. Identifying the evolved gas components helps determine sample characteristics that can’t be verified using TGA alone.

UPLC ESI MS

TPD-TPR-Chemisorption: Temperature programmed desorption and reduction (TPD-TPR) is a tool for quantitative and qualitative study of solid surface using chemisorption technique. It can determine catalytic properties such as percent of metal dispersion, active metal surface area, acid strength, surface acidity, etc.