AFM: AFM is one kind of scanning probe microscopy, it operates by measuring force between a probe and the sample. The information is gathered by feeling or touching the surface with a mechanical probe. Piezoelectric elements that facilitate tiny but accurate and precise movements on command enable precise scanning.


SEM: SEM produces images of a sample by scanning the surface with a focused beam of electrons. The electrons interact with atoms in the sample, producing various signals that contain information about the sample's surface topography and composition. The electron beam is scanned in a raster scan pattern, and the beam's position is combined with the detected signal to produce an image.


TEM: In TEM, a beam of electrons is transmitted through a specimen to form an image, which is formed from the interaction of the electrons with the sample as the beam is transmitted through the specimen. It can show characteristics of the sample such as morphology, crystallization, stress and more.