In situ DRIFT IR

In-situ DRIFT: In DRIFTS, the diffuse reflection is produced by the sample's rough surfaces' reflection of the light in all directions and is collected by use of an ellipsoid or paraboloid mirror. It studies the surface chemistry of powders, notably for heterogeneous catalysis, where the temperature and environment of the catalyst can be controlled in-situ in the DRIFTS cell.

In situ XPS

In-situ XPS: XPS is a surface-sensitive quantitative spectroscopic technique, it can be used to analyze the surface chemistry of a material in its as-received state, or after some treatment. The spectra are obtained by irradiating the sample with a beam of X-rays while simultaneously measuring the kinetic energy and number of electrons that escape from the top 0 to 10 nm of the sample.

Raman spectrometer

Raman spectrometer: Raman spectroscopy is a common technique used in chemistry to provide a structural fingerprint by which molecules can be identified. It can observe vibrational, rotational, and other low-frequency modes in a testing system.

XRD

XRD: XRD can determine the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many directions. By measuring the angles and intensities of the diffracted beams, it can produce a three-dimensional picture of the density of electrons within the crystal. From this, the mean positions of the atoms in the crystal can be determined, as well as their chemical bonds, disorder, etc.